First vault expansion in Apert and Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndromes: Front or back?
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Volume 137 - Issue 1 p. 112e- 121e
Background: Children with Apert and Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndromes are at risk of intracranial hypertension. Until 2005, when the authors switched to occipital expansion, their institution's preferred treatment was fronto-orbital advancement. However, it was still unclear whether (1) occipitofrontal head circumference (i.e., intracranial volume) was greater after occipital expansion than after fronto-orbital advancement; (2) the incidences of tonsillar herniation and papilledema were lower; and (3) visual acuity was better during follow-up. In these patients, the authors therefore compared fronto-orbital advancement with occipital expansion as the first surgical procedure. Methods: Measurements included repeated occipitofrontal head circumference as a measure for intracranial volume; neuroimaging to evaluate tonsillar herniation; funduscopy to identify papilledema; and visual acuity testing. Results: The authors included 37 patients (Apert syndrome, n = 18; Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndrome, n = 19). Eighteen underwent fronto-orbital advancement and 19 underwent occipital expansion (age at surgery, 1.0 versus 1.5 years; p = 0.13). Follow-up time in both groups was 5.7 years. The increase in occipitofrontal head circumference (+1.09 SD) was greater after occipital expansion than after fronto-orbital advancement (+0.32 SD) (p = 0.03). After occipital expansion, fewer patients with Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndrome had tonsillar herniation (occipital, three of 11; fronto-orbital advancement, seven of eight; p = 0.02); for both syndromes together, fewer patients had papilledema (occipital, four of 19; fronto-orbital advancement, 11 of 18; p = 0.02). Visual acuity was similar after fronto-orbital advancement and occipital expansion (0.09 versus 0.13 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) (p = 0.28). Conclusions: The authors' preference for occipital expansion as the initial craniofacial procedure in Apert and Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndromes is supported by the greater increase it produces in intracranial volume (as evidenced by the occipitofrontal head circumference), which reduces the incidences of tonsillar herniation and papilledema.
|Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery|
|Organisation||Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam|
Spruijt, B, Rijken, B.F.M, den Ottelander, B.K, Joosten, K.F.M, Leguin, M, Loudon, S.E, … Mathijssen, I.M.J. (2016). First vault expansion in Apert and Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndromes: Front or back?. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 137(1), 112e–121e. doi:10.1097/PRS.0000000000001894