The incidence and appearance of focal fibrillation waves on the right and left atrial epicardial surface were visualized during 10 seconds of persistent atrial fibrillation in a 71-year-old woman with valvular heart disease. The frequent, nonrepetitive, widespread, and capricious distribution of focal waves suggests that transmural conduction of fibrillation waves is most likely the mechanism underlying focal fibrillation waves.

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Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Department of Cardiology

Lanters, E.A.H, Allessie, M.A, & de Groot, N.M.S. (2016). Dynamics of Focal Fibrillation Waves during Persistent Atrial Fibrillation. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 39(4), 403–404. doi:10.1111/pace.12807