Pharmacogenomicsis gradually assuming an integral part in modern medical practice. The exploitation of genomic data to better predict response to medications and avoid adverse drug reactions is becoming a reality in some medical specialties (i.e., personalized medicine). The creation of an informational structured framework of genetic, phenotypic, and environmental factors might provide the health-care system with useful tools that can optimize the effectiveness of specific treatments. In this chapter, we review the most relevant applications of pharmacogenomics, together with an overview of the opportunities and bottlenecks of the implementation of genetic information in personalized medicineand of its full adoption in clinical settings.