Thiotepa is an alkylating compound with an antineoplastic and myeloablative activity and can mimic the effect of radiation. However, it is unknown whether this new regimen could safely replace the long-established ones. This retrospective matched-pair analysis evaluated the outcome of adults with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission who received myeloablative conditioning either with a thiotepa-based (n=121) or a cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation-based (TBI; n=358) regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling or an unrelated donor. With a median follow-up of 44months, the outcome was similar in both groups. Acute graft-versus-host disease grade II-IV was observed in 25% after thiotepa-containing regimen versus 35% after TBI (P=0.06). The 2-yr cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 40.5% for thiotepa and 41% for TBI (P=0.98). At 2 yrs, the cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence were 23.9% (thiotepa) vs. 22.4% (TBI; P=0.66) and 17.2% (thiotepa) vs. 23.3% (TBI; P=0.77), respectively. The probabilities of leukaemia-free and overall survival at 2yrs were not significantly different between the thiotepa and TBI groups, at 58.9% vs. 54.2% (P=0.95) and 61.4% vs. 58% (P=0.72), respectively. Myeloablative regimens using combinations including thiotepa can provide satisfactory outcomes, but the optimal conditioning remains unclear for the individual patient in this setting.

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European Journal of Haematology
Department of Medical Oncology

Eder, S., Labopin, M., Arcese, W., Or, R., Majolino, I., Bacigalupo, A., … Mohty, M. (2016). Thiotepa-based versus total body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission: A retrospective analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. European Journal of Haematology, 96(1), 90–97. doi:10.1111/ejh.12553