Dual scaling (DS) is a multivariate exploratory method equivalent to correspondence analysis when analysing contingency tables. However, for the analysis of rating data, different proposals appear in the DS and correspondence analysis literature. It is shown here that a peculiarity of the DS method can be exploited to detect differences in response styles. Response styles occur when respondents use rating scales differently for reasons not related to the questions, often biasing results. A spline-based constrained version of DS is devised which can detect the presence of four prominent types of response styles, and is extended to allow for multiple response styles. An alternating nonnegative least squares algorithm is devised for estimating the parameters. The new method is appraised both by simulation studies and an empirical application.

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doi.org/10.1007/s11336-015-9458-9, hdl.handle.net/1765/86896
ERIM Top-Core Articles
Department of Econometrics

Schoonees, P., van de Velden, M., & Groenen, P. (2015). Constrained Dual Scaling for Detecting Response Styles in Categorical Data. Psychometrika, 80(4), 968–994. doi:10.1007/s11336-015-9458-9