Aims/hypothesis Type 1 diabetes is associated with a higher risk of major vascular complications and death. A reliable method that predicted these outcomes early in the disease process would help in risk classification. We therefore developed such a prognostic model and quantified its performance in independent cohorts. Methods Data were analysed from 1,973 participants with type 1 diabetes followed for 7 years in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Strong prognostic factors for major outcomes were combined in a Weibull regression model. The performance of the model was tested in three different prospective cohorts: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study (EDC, n = 554), the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy study (FinnDiane, n = 2,999) and the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study (CACTI, n = 580). Major outcomes included major CHD, stroke, end-stage renal failure, amputations, blindness and all-cause death. Results A total of 95 EURODIAB patients with type 1 diabetes developed major outcomes during follow-up. Prognostic factors were age, HbA1c, WHR, albumin/creatinine ratio and HDL-cholesterol level. The discriminative ability of the model was adequate, with a concordance statistic (C-statistic) of 0.74. Discrimination was similar or even better in the independent cohorts, the C-statistics being: EDC, 0.79; FinnDiane, 0.82; and CACTI, 0.73. Conclusions/interpretation Our prognostic model, which uses easily accessible clinical features can discriminate between type 1 diabetes patients who have a good or a poor prognosis. Such a prognostic model may be helpful in clinical practice and for risk stratification in clinical trials.

Development, Discrimination, External validation, Major outcomes, Predict, Prognostic model, Risk, Type 1 diabetes, Validation
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-014-3358-x, hdl.handle.net/1765/87116
Diabetologia: clinical and experimental diabetes and metabolism
Department of Public Health

Soedamah-Muthu, S, Vergouwe, Y, Costacou, T, Miller, R.G, Zgibor, J, Chaturvedi, N, … Orchard, T.J. (2014). Predicting major outcomes in type 1 diabetes: a model development and validation study. Diabetologia: clinical and experimental diabetes and metabolism. doi:10.1007/s00125-014-3358-x