To create a city in which green space is designed to address not only ecological priorities but also user perception, it is essential for planners and policy makers to explore the experiences of urban green space users. This study developed a method to a guide the translation of the concept of ecosystem services to citizens. Through a three-step process urban ecosystem services were re-categorized into a subset of directly perceivable services, fine-grained and formed into understandable statements. These statements were presented to urban park users in Rotterdam using Q methodology. Three main user profiles emerged around 'love of nature', 'recreation and connection' and 'social setting and relaxation'. Overall the most valued ecosystem subservice was aesthetic appreciation. Other ecosystem subservices that scored highly were recreation, air quality control and social setting. Awareness of types of users in terms of park perception could aid urban planners in designing user-focused urban green spaces.

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Ecosystem Services
Dutch Research Institute for Transitions (DRIFT)

Buchel, S., & Frantzeskaki, N. (2015). Citizens' voice: A case study about perceived ecosystem services by urban park users in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Ecosystem Services, 12, 169–177. doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.11.014