The adaptive immune system consists of T and B cells that express clonally distributed antigen receptors. To achieve functional adaptive immune responses, antigen-specific T cell populations are stimulated by professional antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells (DCs), which provide crucial stimulatory signals for efficient expansion and development of effector functions. Antigen-specific B cells receive costimulatory signals from helper T cells to stimulate affinity maturation and isotype switching. Here we elaborate on the interactions between DCs, T cells and B cells, and on the important signals for efficient induction of adaptive immune responses.

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Immunology Letters
Department of Immunology

den Haan, J. M. M., Arens, R., & van Zelm, M. (2014). The activation of the adaptive immune system: Cross-talk between antigen-presenting cells, T cells and B cells. Immunology Letters (Vol. 162, pp. 103–112). doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2014.10.011