The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. The Panel makes the following recommendations concerning the indications for resistance testing: for HIV-1 (i) test earliest sample for protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance in drug-naive patients with acute or chronic infection; (ii) test protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance at virologic failure, and other drug targets (integrase and envelope) if such drugs were part of the failing regimen; (iii) consider testing for CCR5 tropism at virologic failure or when a change of therapy has to be made in absence of detectable viral load, and in the latter case test DNA or last detectable plasma RNA; (iv) consider testing earliest detectable plasma RNA when a successful nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing therapy was inappropriately interrupted; (v) genotype source patient when postexposure prophylaxis is considered; for HIV-2, (vi) consider resistance testing where treatment change is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing samples in situations where resistance testing cannot be performed as recommended. Similarly, it is necessary that HIV clinicians and virologists take part in continuous education and discuss problematic clinical cases. Indeed, resistance test results should be used in the context of all other clinically relevant information for predicting therapy response.

Antiviral therapy, Drug resistance testing, Genotype, Guidelines, HIV, Phenotype
the European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel
AIDS Reviews
This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id fp7/223131 - Collaborative HIV and Anti-HIV Drug Resistance Network (CHAIN)
Department of Virology

Vandamme, A.M, Camacho, R.J, Ceccherini-Silberstein, F, de Luca, A, Palmisano, L, Paraskevis, D, … Sonnerborg, A. (2011). European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update. AIDS Reviews (Vol. 13, pp. 77–108). Retrieved from