The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these associations were modified by body mass index (BMI), age, gender, or physical activity. Two-independent cohorts of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA-I, 1995/1996, aged ≥65; LASA-II, 2008/2009, aged 61–71) and baseline measurement of the B-vitamins for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures (B-PROOF) study (2008–2011, aged 65+) were used. QUS measurements [broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS)] were performed at the calcaneus in all three cohorts (N = 1,235, N = 365, N = 1319); BMD was measured by Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in B-PROOF (N = 1,162 and 1,192 for specific sites) and LASA-I (N = 492 and 503). The associations of vitamin D status with BUA and BMD were modified by BMI. Only in persons with low-to-normal BMI (<25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and serum 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L was associated with lower BUA as compared to the reference group (≥50 nmol/L) in LASA-I and B-PROOF. Furthermore, in LASA-I, these individuals had lower BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. In LASA-II, no associations with BUA were observed. Vitamin D status was not associated with SOS, and these associations were not modified by the effect modifiers tested. The association between vitamin D status and BUA and BMD was modified by BMI in the older-aged cohorts: there was only an association in individuals with BMI <25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>.

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Calcified Tissue International
Department of Internal Medicine

Sohl, E., de Jongh, R., Swart, K., Enneman, A., van Wijngaarden, J., van Dijk, S., … van Schoor, N. (2014). The Association Between Vitamin D Status and Parameters for Bone Density and Quality is Modified by Body Mass Index. Calcified Tissue International, 96(2), 113–122. doi:10.1007/s00223-014-9943-7