Background: PCA3 is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) with unknown function, upregulated in prostate cancer. LncRNAs may be processed into smaller active species. We hypothesized this for PCA3. Methods: We computed feasible RNA hairpins within the BMCC1 gene (encompassing PCA3) and searched a prostate transcriptome for these. We measured expression using qRTPCR in three cohorts of prostate cancer tissues (n = 60), exfoliated urinary cells (n = 484 with cancer and n = 166 controls), and in cell lines (n = 22). We used in silico predictions and RNA knockup to identify potential mRNA targets of short transcribed RNAs. Results: We predicted 13 hairpins, of which PCA3-shRNA2 was most abundant within the prostate transcriptome. PCA3-shRNA2 is located within intron 1 of PCA3 and appears regulated by androgens. Expression of PCA3-shRNA2 was upregulated in malignant prostatic tissues, exfoliated urinary cells from men with prostate cancer (13-273 fold change; t test P < 0.003), and closely correlated to PCA3 expression (r = 0.84-0.93; P < 0.001). Urinary PCA3-shRNA2 (C-index, 0.75-0.81) and PCA3 (C-index, 0.78) could predict the presence of cancer in most men. PCA3-shRNA2 knockup altered the expression of predicted target mRNAs, including COPS2, SOX11, WDR48, TEAD1, and Noggin. PCA3-shRNA2 expression was negatively correlated with COPS2 in patient samples (r = -0.32; P < 0.001). Conclusion: We identified a short RNA within PCA3, whose expression is correlated to PCA3, which may target mRNAs implicated in prostate biology. Impact: This short RNA is stable ex vivo, suggesting a role as a robust biomarker.Weidentify cytoplasmic enrichment of thisRNA and potential targeting of mRNAs implicated in prostate carcinogenesis.,
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Department of Urology

Drayton, R. M., Rehman, I., Clarke, R., Zhao, Z., Pang, K., Miah, S., … Catto, J. (2015). Identification and diagnostic performance of a small RNA within the PCA3 and BMCC1 gene locus that potentially targets mRNA. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 24(1), 268–275. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0377