Background Tivozanib hydrochloride (tivozanib) is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of all 3 vascular endothelial growth factor receptors with antitumor activity additive to 5-fluorouracil in preclinical models. This study was conducted to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics (PKs), and antitumor activity of escalating doses of tivozanib with a modified (m)FOLFOX-6 (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil [5-FU], and 85 mg/kg2 oxaliplatin) regimen in patients with advanced gastrointestinal tumors. Patients and Methods Tivozanib was administered orally once daily for 21 days in 28-day cycles, with mFOLFOX-6 administered every 14 days. Patients were allowed to continue tivozanib after discontinuation of mFOLFOX-6. Results Thirty patients were assigned to tivozanib 0.5 mg (n = 9), 1.0 mg (n = 3), or 1.5 mg (n = 18) with mFOLFOX-6. Patients received a median of 5.2 (range, 0.03-26.9) months of tivozanib. DLTs were observed in 2 patients: Grade 3/4 transaminase level increases with tivozanib 0.5 mg, and Grade 3 dizziness with tivozanib 1.5 mg. Other Grade 3/4 adverse events included hypertension (n = 8), fatigue (n = 8), and neutropenia (n = 6). MTD for tivozanib with mFOLFOX-6 was confirmed as 1.5 mg. No PK interactions between tivozanib and mFOLFOX-6 were observed. One patient had an ongoing clinical complete response, 10 had a partial response, and 11 obtained prolonged stable disease. Conclusion Tivozanib and mFOLFOX-6 is feasible and appears to be safe. The recommended dose for tivozanib with mFOLFOX-6 is 1.5 mg/d. Observed clinical activity merits further exploration in gastrointestinal tumors.

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Clinical colorectal cancer
Department of Medical Oncology

Oldenhuis, C. N. A. M., Loos, W., Esteves, B., van Doorn, L., Cotreau, M., Strahs, A. L., … Eskens, F. (2015). A phase Ib study of the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor tivozanib and modified FOLFOX-6 in patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies. Clinical colorectal cancer, 14(1), 18–24.e1. doi:10.1016/j.clcc.2014.12.001