Prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Pooled analyses of individual patient data in the SAHIT repository
Journal of Neurosurgery , Volume 122 - Issue 3 p. 644- 652
OBJECT The literature has conflicting reports about the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in the SAH International Trialists repository. METHODS:Patient-level meta-analyses were conducted to investigate univariate associations between premorbid hypertension (6 studies; n = 7249), admission neurological status measured on the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scale (10 studies; n = 10,869), and 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Multivariable analyses were performed to sequentially adjust for the effects of age, CT clot burden, aneurysm location, aneurysm size, and modality of aneurysm repair. Prognostic associations were estimated across the ordered categories of the GOS using proportional odds models. Nagelkerke's R2 statistic was used to quantify the added prognostic value of hypertension and neurological status beyond those of the adjustment factors. RESULTS:Premorbid hypertension was independently associated with poor outcome, with an unadjusted pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.00) and an adjusted OR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.25-1.53). Patients with a premorbid history of hypertension had higher rates of cardiovascular and renal comorbidities, poorer neurological status (p ≤ 0.001), and higher odds of neurological complications including cerebral infarctions, hydrocephalus, rebleeding, and delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Worsening neurological status was strongly independently associated with poor outcome, including WFNS Grades II (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.68-2.03), III (OR 3.85, 95% CI 3.32-4.47), IV (OR 5.58, 95% CI 4.91-6.35), and V (OR 14.18, 95% CI 12.20-16.49). Neurological status had substantial added predictive value greater than the combined value of other prognostic factors (R2 increase > 10%), while the added predictive value of hypertension was marginal (R2 increase < 0.5%). CONCLUSIO NS:This study confirmed the strong prognostic effect of neurological status as measured on the WFNS scale and the independent but weak prognostic effect of premorbid hypertension. The effect of premorbid hypertension could involve multifactorial mechanisms, including an increase in the severity of initial bleeding, the rate of comorbid events, and neurological complications.