Methods and materials: For 13 patients treated in prone position, four variable bladder-filling CT scans per patient, acquired at planning and after 40 Gy, were selected from an available dataset of 9–10 CT scans. The bladder, rectum, and the nodal-vessels structure containing the iliac vessels and all visible enlarged nodes were delineated in each selected CT scan. Two online patient setup correction protocols were simulated. The first corrected bony anatomy translations and the second corrected translations and rotations. The efficacy of each correction was calculated as the overlap between the nodal-vessels structure in the reference and repeat CT scans. The motion magnitude between delineated structures was quantified using nonrigid registration.Results: Translational corrections resulted in an average overlap of 58 ± 13% and in a range of motion between 9.9 and 27.3 mm. Translational and rotational corrections significantly improved the overlap (64 ± 13%, p value = 0.007) and moderately reduced the range of motion to 7.6–23.8 mm (p value = 0.03). Bladder filling changes significantly correlated with the nodal-vessels motion (p < 0.001).Conclusion: The motion of the nodal-vessels was large, nonrigid, patient-specific, and only moderately synchronous with the bony anatomy. This study highlights the need for caution when reducing the CTV-to-PTV (PTV planning target volume) margin of the nodal CTV for highly conformal radiation techniques.Purpose: In cervical cancer patients the nodal clinical target volume (CTV, defined using the major pelvic blood vessels and enlarged lymph nodes) is assumed to move synchronously with the bony anatomy. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by investigating the motion of the major pelvic blood vessels and enlarged lymph nodes visible in CT scans.

Nodal clinical target volume, Nonrigid registration, Organ motion, Radiotherapy, intensity modulated, Uterine cervical neoplasm
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-014-0720-3, hdl.handle.net/1765/87893
Strahlentherapie und Onkologie
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Bondar, L, Velema, L, Mens, J.W.M, Zwijnenburg, D, Heijmen, B.J.M, & Hoogeman, M.S. (2014). Repeat CT-scan assessment of lymph node motion in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, 190(12), 1104–1110. doi:10.1007/s00066-014-0720-3