Background: Physicians utilize different types of information to predict patient prognosis. For example: confronted with a new patient suffering from severe aortic stenosis (AS), the cardiologist considers not only the severity of the AS but also patient characteristics, medical history, and markers such as BNP. Intuitively, doctors adjust their prediction of prognosis over time, with the change in clinical status, aortic valve area and BNP at each outpatient clinic visit. With the help of novel statistical approaches to model outcomes, it is now possible to construct dynamic event prediction models, employing longitudinal data such as AVA and BNP, and mimicking the dynamic adjustment of prognosis as employed intuitively by cardiologists. We illustrate dynamic prediction of patient survival and freedom from intervention, using baseline patient characteristics and longitudinal BNP data that are becoming available over time, from a cohort of patients with severe aortic stenosis. Methods: A 3-step approach was employed: (1) construction of a mixed-effects model to describe temporal BNP progression, (2) jointly modeling the mixed-effects model with time-to-event data (death and freedom from intervention), and (3) using the joint model to build subject-specific prediction risk models. The dataset used for this purpose includes 191 patients with severe aortic stenosis who were followed over a 3-year time period. Results: In the mixed-effects model BNP was significantly influenced by time, baseline patient age, gender, LV fractional ejection fraction and creatinine. Additionally, the joint model showed that an increasing BNP trend over time was found to be a significant predictor of death. Conclusions: By jointly modeling longitudinal data with time-to-event outcomes it is possible to construct individualized dynamic event prediction models that renew over time with accumulating evidence. It provides a potentially valuable evidence-based tool for everyday use in medical practice.

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B M C Cardiovascular Disorders
Department of Biostatistics

Andrinopoulou, E.-R., Rizopoulos, D., Geleijnse, M., Lesaffre, E., Bogers, A., & Takkenberg, H. (2015). Dynamic prediction of outcome for patients with severe aortic stenosis: Application of joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data. B M C Cardiovascular Disorders. doi:10.1186/s12872-015-0035-z