Protocolised inpatient care of diabetes mellitus
The Netherlands Journal of Medicine , Volume 70 - Issue 9 p. 406- 410
Background: The prevalence of hyperglycaemia in patients with diabetes mellitus at admission is high. Prevention and treatment is important to prevent further clinical complications. We have conducted a study evaluating implementation of a new protocol to standardise inpatient care of patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: A retrospective study including all glucose measurements of adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 o r 2, a dmitted t o a s urgery d epartment, w as performed before and after implementation of the new protocol. This protocol included direct consultation of an internist and diabetes specialist nurse at admission, who initiated a daily treatment program and adjustment scheme based on glucose measurements four times a day by the HemoCue201DM glucose point of care device. We compared the prevalence of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia before and after implementation with logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and gender. Results: Overall, 360 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 with 5322 glucose measurements were included. The risk of developing hyperglycaemia was significantly reduced after implementation of the protocol (22 patients with 65 hyperglycaemias) compared with before the intervention (70 patients with 417 hyperglycaemias) (RR adjusted 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.19; 0.32)). Overall, 45 patients experienced 95 episodes of hypoglycaemia, which did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: After implementation of a new protocol to standardise inpatient care of diabetes mellitus we established a decrease in the risk to develop hyperglycaemia of 76% without an increased risk of developing hypoglycaemia. Implementation of this protocol required frequent glucose measurements which are facilitated by point of care glucose measurements.