Against the backdrop of economic development's increasing burden on the environment, the chapter argues that the state in Turkey is in many cases not fulfilling its duties towards the environment. This seems rather paradoxical given that Turkey seemingly has all the ingredients associated with the successful development and implementation of environmental policies: a well-developed environmental legislation, an active environmental civil society, and capable public environmental institutions. This inconsistency is investigated by developing an analytical framework that sheds light on the nature and workings of the environmental policy-design and implementation process in Turkey.