Mammalian cells actively secrete factors that contribute to shape their microenvironment. These factors either travel freely or they are enclosed within the lipid bilayer of extracellular vesicles (EVs), and regulate the function of neighboring and distant cells. EVs are secreted by a wide spectrum of cell types and are found in various biological fluids. They convey their message by mediating the horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules, such as proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs, between cells. Recent studies showed the vital roles of EVs in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this review, we highlight the recent developments in the newly emerging EV field, including their biogenesis, molecular content and function. Moreover, we discuss the role of EVs in bone biology and their promising applications in diagnosis, drug development and regenerative therapy.

Bioactive cargo, Bone, Extracellular vesicles, Intercellular communication,
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Department of Internal Medicine

Morhayim, J, Baroncelli, M, & van Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. (2014). Extracellular vesicles: Specialized bone messengers. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Vol. 561, pp. 38–45). doi:10.1016/