Viruses have two opposing faces. On the one hand, they can cause harm and disease. A virus may manifest directly as a contagious disease with a clinical pathology of varying significance. A viral infection can also have delayed consequences, and in rare cases may cause cellular transformation and cancer. On the other hand, viruses may provide hope: hope for an efficacious treatment of serious disease. Examples of the latter are the use of viruses as a vaccine, as transfer vector for therapeutic genes in a gene therapy setting, or, more directly, as therapeutic anticancer agent in an oncolytic-virus therapy setting. Already there is evidence for antitumor activity of oncolytic viruses. The antitumor efficacy seems linked to their capacity to induce a tumor-directed immune response. Here, we will provide an overview on the development of oncolytic viruses and their clinical evaluation from the Dutch perspective.,
Human Gene Therapy
Department of Neurosurgery

Belcaid, Z, Lamfers, M.L.M, Beusechem, V.W, & Hoeben, R.C. (2014). Changing faces in virology: The Dutch shift from oncogenic to oncolytic viruses. Human Gene Therapy, 25(10), 875–884. doi:10.1089/hum.2014.092