Activating germ-line and somatic mutations in AKT3 (OMIM 611223) are associated with megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome (MPPH; OMIM # 615937) and megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP; OMIM # 602501). Here we report an individual with megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, refractory epilepsy, hypoglycemia and a germline AKT3 mutation. At birth, head circumference was 43. cm (5 standard deviations above the mean). No organomegaly was present, but there was generalized hypotonia, joint and skin laxity, developmental delay and failure to thrive. At 6. months of age the patient developed infantile spasms that were resistant to antiepileptic polytherapy. Recurrent hypoglycemia was noted during treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone but stabilized upon introduction of continuous, enriched feeding. The infantile spasms responded to the introduction of a ketogenic diet, but the hypoglycemia recurred until the diet was adjusted for increased resting energy expenditure. A novel, de novo AKT3 missense variant (exon 5; c.548T. >. A, p.(V183D)) was identified and shown to activate AKT3 by in vitro functional testing. We hypothesize that the sustained hypoglycemia in this patient is caused by increased glucose utilization due to activation of AKT3 signaling. This might explain the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in this individual.

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Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Department of Pediatrics

Nellist, M., Schot, R., Hoogeveen-Westerveld, M., Neuteboom, R., van der Louw, E., Leguin, M., … Mancini, G. (2015). Germline activating AKT3 mutation associated with megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, epilepsy and hypoglycemia. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 114(3), 467–473. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.11.018