Organoids have tremendous therapeutic potential. They were recently defined as a collection of organ-specific cell types, which self-organize through cell-sorting, develop from stem cells, and perform an organ specific function. The ability to study organoid development and growth in culture and manipulate their genetic makeup makes them particularly suitable for studying development, disease, and drug efficacy. Organoids show great promise in personalized medicine. From a single patient biopsy, investigators can make hundreds of organoids with the genetic landscape of the patient of origin. This genetic similarity makes organoids an ideal system in which to test drug efficacy. While many investigators assume human organoids are the ultimate model system, we believe that the generation of epithelial organoids of comparative model organisms has great potential. Many key transport discoveries were made using marine organisms. In this paper, we describe how deriving organoids from the spiny dogfish shark, zebrafish, and killifish can contribute to the fields of comparative biology and disease modeling with future prospects for personalized medicine.

Cystic fibrosis, Danio rerio, Fundulus heteroclitus, Organoids, Squalus acanthias
Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Schwarz, J.S, de Jonge, H.R, & Forrest, J.N, Jr. (2015). Value of organoids from comparative epithelia models. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine (Vol. 88, pp. 367–374). Retrieved from