Background: Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is a cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular tribeculae and deep intertrabecular recesses. Because of its genetic underpinnings and physical disease burden, noncompaction cardiomyopathy is expected to be associated with a lower health status and increase in pscyhological distress. Purpose: This study determined the health status and psychological distress in NCCM patients. We also examined the potential contribution of genetic predisposition and cardiac symptoms to health status and distress in NCCM, by comparing NCCM patients with (1) patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and (2) patients with acquired dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods: Patients were recruited from the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Using a case-control design, NCCM patients (N = 45, mean age 46.7 ± 15.1 years, 38 % male) were compared with 43 FH patients and 42 DCM patients. Outcome measures were health status (Short Form Health Survey-12), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item scale). Results: NCCM patients showed significantly worse health status (Physical Component Score F(1,84) = 9.58, P =.003; Mental Component Score F(1,84) = 16.65, P <.001), anxiety (F(1,85) = 9.63, P =.003) and depression scores (F(1,82) = 5.4, P =.023) compared to FH patients, also after adjusting age, sex, comorbidity, educational level and time since diagnosis. However, NCCM patients did not differ from DCM patients (Physical Component Score F(1,82) = 2,61, P =.11; Mental Component Score F(1,82) =.55, P =.46), anxiety (F(1,82) = 1.16, P =.28) and depression scores (F(1,82) = 1,95, P =.17). Conclusion: Cardiac symptoms are likely to play a role in the observed poor health status and elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms in NCCM, whereas the burden of having a genetic condition may contribute less to these health status and psychological measures.

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Keywords Anxiety, Cardiomyopathy, Depression, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Health status, Non-compaction cardiomyopathy, Psychological distress
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Journal International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Brouwers, C, Caliskan, K, Bos, S, Roeters van Lennep, J.E, Sijbrands, E.J.G, Kop, W.J, & Pedersen, S.S. (2015). Health Status and Psychological Distress in Patients with Non-compaction Cardiomyopathy: The Role of Burden Related to Symptoms and Genetic Vulnerability. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22(6), 717–725. doi:10.1007/s12529-015-9475-1