Development of additional pituitary hormone deficiencies in pediatric patients originally diagnosed with isolated growth hormone deficiency due to organic causes
European Journal of Endocrinology , Volume 174 - Issue 5 p. 669- 679
Objective: To determine characteristics of children initially diagnosed with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) of organic aetiology, who later developed multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Design: Data were analysed for 716 growth hormone-treated children with organic IGHD, who were growth hormone-naive at baseline in the multinational, observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study. Methods: Development of MPHD was ascertained from investigator-provided diagnoses, adverse events and concomitant medications. Analyses were performed for all patients and separately for those who developed MPHD within 4.5 years or had >3.5 years follow-up and continued to have IGHD (4-year cohort). Results: MPHD developed in 71/716 (9.9%) children overall, and in 60/290 (20.7%) in the 4-year cohort. The most frequent additional deficiencies were thyroid-stimulating hormone (47 patients) and gonadotropins (23 patients). Compared with those who remained with IGHD, children who developed MPHD had more severe GHD at study entry, significantly lower baseline insulin-like growth factor1, peak stimulated growth hormone, and more frequent diagnosis of intracranial tumour or mutation of gene(s) controlling hypothalamic-pituitary development and/or function. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified female gender, longer follow-up, higher baseline age and lower peak stimulated growth hormone as predictors of MPHD development. Conclusions: MPHD is more likely to develop in patients with severe organic IGHD, especially those with history of intracranial tumour or mutation of gene(s) controlling hypothalamic-pituitary development and/or function. Older baseline age, female gender and longer follow-up duration were also associated with higher incidence of MPHD. Long-term monitoring of pituitary function is recommended, irrespective of the aetiology of GHD.