Purpose: A new technique is demonstrated for extensive high-resolution intra-operative atrial mapping that will facilitate the localization of atrial fibrillation (AF) sources and identification of the substrate perpetuating AF. Methods: Prior to the start of extra-corporal circulation, a 8 × 24-electrode array (2-mm inter-electrode distance) is placed subsequently on all the right and left epicardial atrial sites, including Bachmann’s bundle, for recording of unipolar electrograms during sinus rhythm and (induced) AF. AF is induced by high-frequency pacing at the right atrial free wall. A pacemaker wire stitched to the right atrium serves as a reference signal. The indifferent pole is connected to a steal wire fixed to subcutaneous tissue. Electrograms are recorded by a computerized mapping system and, after amplification (gain 1000), filtering (bandwidth 0.5–400 Hz), sampling (1 kHz) and analogue to digital conversion (16 bits), automatically stored on hard disk. During the mapping procedure, real-time visualization secures electrogram quality. Analysis will be performed offline. Results: This technique was performed in 168 patients of 18 years and older, with coronary and/or structural heart disease, with or without AF, electively scheduled for cardiac surgery and a ventricular ejection fraction above 40 %. The mean duration of the entire mapping procedure including preparation time was 9 ± 2 min. Complications related to the mapping procedure during or after cardiac surgery were not observed. Conclusions: We introduce the first epicardial atrial mapping approach with a high resolution of ≥1728 recording sites which can be performed in a procedure time of only 9±2 mins. This mapping technique can potentially identify areas responsible for initiation and persistence of AF and hopefully can individualize both diagnosis and therapy of AF.

Atrial fibrillation, Electrophysiology, Epicardial mapping technique, Technical report
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-015-0061-x, hdl.handle.net/1765/88768
Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology
Department of Cardiology

Yaksh, A, van der Does, J.M.E, Kik, C, Knops, S.P, Oei, F.B.S, van de Woestijne, P.C, … de Groot, N.M.S. (2015). A novel intra-operative, high-resolution atrial mapping approach. Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology, 44(3), 221–225. doi:10.1007/s10840-015-0061-x