Background: Reliable reference intervals for two novel urinary biomarkers of renal injury, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1) are lacking for infants. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish reference intervals for urinary NGAL and KIM-1 absolute concentrations as well as normalized to urinary creatinine in young infants categorized in small age intervals. Methods: From June 2010 to March 2014, serum and urine samples of 106 basically healthy infants (born between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation) aged 1 day to 1 year were collected. Blood samples were assayed for serum creatinine levels to confirm a healthy renal status. Urine samples were assayed for creatinine, uNGAL (ng/mL) and uKIM-1 (ng/mL). Results: Two thirds of the study cohort were boys. uNGAL concentrations declined with increasing age (likelihood ratio test, p=0.001). Also, uNGAL concentrations were higher in girls (50th centile uNGAL was 27.1 ng/mL) than boys (50th centile uNGAL was 14.3 ng/mL) (two tailed Wald test, p<0.001) NGAL concentrations were not related to ethnicity. uKIM-1 concentrations were extremely low in almost all 106 subjects [median uKIM-1 was 0.08 (IQR 0.08-0.08) ng/mL] and not related with age, gender or ethnicity (all p>0.05). Conclusions: Our data uniquely provide uNGAL and uKIM-1 reference intervals for the first year of life. Notably, only uNGAL levels decreased with increasing age and were higher in girls. These reference intervals enable future studies to evaluate the performance of both biomarkers in detecting early kidney tubular injury, particularly in the setting of critical care.

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Keywords kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), pediatrics, reference intervals, serum creatinine, urinary biomarkers
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2014-1020, hdl.handle.net/1765/88843
Journal Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Associated with FESCC and IFCC
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Citation
Zwiers, A.J.M, de Wildt, S.N, de Rijke, Y.B, Willemsen, S.P, Abdullahi, N.S, Tibboel, D, & Cransberg, K. (2015). Reference intervals for renal injury biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 in young infants. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Associated with FESCC and IFCC, 53(8), 1279–1289. doi:10.1515/cclm-2014-1020