Main pulmonary artery area limits exercise capacity in patients long-term after arterial switch operation
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , Volume 150 - Issue 4 p. 918- 925
Objectives Despite excellent survival in patients after the arterial switch operation, reintervention is frequently required and exercise capacity is decreased in a substantial number of patients. This study relates right-sided imaging features in patients long-term after the arterial switch operation to exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency to investigate which lesions are functionally important. Methods Patients operated in the UMC Utrecht, the Netherlands (1976-2001) and healthy controls underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiopulmonary exercise testing within 1 week. We measured main, left, and right pulmonary artery cross-sectional areas, pulmonary blood flow distribution, peak oxygen uptake, and minute ventilation relative to carbon dioxide elimination. Results A total of 71 patients (median age, 20 [12-35] years, 73% were male) and 21 healthy controls (median age, 26 [21-35] years, 48% were male) were included. Main, left, and right pulmonary artery areas were decreased compared with controls (190 vs 269 mm2/m2, 59 vs 157 mm2/m2, 98 vs 139 mm2/m2, respectively, all P <.001); however, pulmonary blood flow distribution was comparable (P =.722). Peak oxygen uptake and minute ventilation relative to carbon dioxide elimination were 88% ± 20% and 23.7 ± 3.8, respectively, with 42% and 1% of patients demonstrating abnormal results (â‰84% and â‰¥ 34, respectively). The main pulmonary artery area significantly correlated with peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.401, P =.001) and pulmonary blood flow distribution with minute ventilation relative to carbon dioxide elimination (r = -0.329, P =.008). Subanalysis (<18, 18-25, >25 years) showed that the main pulmonary artery area was smaller in older age groups. In multivariable analysis, the main pulmonary artery area was independently associated with peak oxygen uptake (P =.032). Conclusions In adult patients after the arterial switch operation, narrowing of the main pulmonary artery is a common finding and is the main determinant of limitation in functional capacity, rather than pulmonary branch stenosis.
|arterial switch operation, exercise capacity, magnetic resonance imaging, pulmonary artery stenosis, transposition of great vessels|
|The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery|
|Organisation||Department of Cardiology|
Baggen, V.J.M, Driessen, M.M.P, Meijboom, F.J, Sieswerda, G.T, Jansen, N.J.G, Van Wijk, S.W.H, … Breur, J.M.P.J. (2015). Main pulmonary artery area limits exercise capacity in patients long-term after arterial switch operation. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 150(4), 918–925. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.07.101