Intraplaque neovascularization is a strong predictor of intraplaque hemorrhage and subsequent plaque rupture. Intraplaque neovascularization is caused by angiogenesis under the influence of hypoxic and inflammatory stimuli. All imaging modalities currently used in clinical practice are able to evaluate angiogenic activity by molecular imaging. However, translation to a clinical setting is limited. This chapter discusses the current status of molecular imaging to identify inflammation and intraplaque neovascularization, as a marker of plaque vulnerability.