Immune cell dynamics in the CNS: Learning from the zebrafish
Glia , Volume 63 - Issue 5 p. 719- 735
A major question in research on immune responses in the brain is how the timing and nature of these responses influence physiology, pathogenesis or recovery from pathogenic processes. Proper understanding of the immune regulation of the human brain requires a detailed description of the function and activities of the immune cells in the brain. Zebrafish larvae allow long-term, noninvasive imaging inside the brain at high-spatiotemporal resolution using fluorescent transgenic reporters labeling specific cell populations. Together with recent additional technical advances this allows an unprecedented versatility and scope of future studies. Modeling of human physiology and pathology in zebrafish has already yielded relevant insights into cellular dynamics and function that can be translated to the human clinical situation. For instance, in vivo studies in the zebrafish have provided new insight into immune cell dynamics in granuloma formation in tuberculosis and the mechanisms involving treatment resistance. In this review, we highlight recent findings and novel tools paving the way for basic neuroimmunology research in the zebrafish.