Background: Which responder characteristics influence TTO scores remains underexplored. More research is needed in order to understand (differences in) TTO scores, but also in the context of generating representative health state valuations for some population. Previous studies have found age, gender, marital status and subjective life expectancy to influence the number of years traded off.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate which other responder characteristics influence TTO responses, with an emphasis on consideration of significant others, such as partners and children.
Methods and Design: We performed a web-based survey in a representative sample of the Dutch general public (aged 18-65). Data on demographics, health status and expectations about future length and quality of life were gathered. Respondents valued three distinct health states using TTO. Results: A total of 1067 respondents completed the questionnaire. Sixty percent of respondents had children and 49 % were married. The mean number of years traded off increased with severity of health states. Higher age and living together were positively associated with number of years traded off. Increases in subjective life expectancy, having children and being male (were negatively associated with the number of years traded-off.
Conclusion: Age, gender and subjective life expectancy, living together and having children were significantly associated with TTO responses. Consideration of significant others in TTO exercises thus may be important in understanding (differences in) TTO responses and when drawing representative samples from the general public.

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Journal Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
van Nooten, F.E, van Exel, N.J.A, Koolman, A.H.E, & Brouwer, W.B.F. (2015). "Married with children" the influence of significant others in TTO exercises. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13(1). doi:10.1186/s12955-015-0276-7