Sacral neuromodulation may treat some urinary bladder filling and emptying problems effectively. After a brief summary of the physiology of the micturition cycle, this chapter describes the problems to which neuromodulation may be applied, how the system is composed and how it might work. An overview of reported outcomes in patients is given. Finally, expectations are expressed about future developments.

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Keywords Chronic pelvic pain, Overactive bladder, Sacral neuromodulation, Urgency urinary incontinence, Urinary retention
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Groen, J.M, & Blok, B.F.M. (2015). Neuromodulation for continence. doi:10.1016/B978-1-78242-101-6.00017-3