Background: CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) are important diagnostic tools in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the prognostic value of CTA and CTP for clinical outcome and determined whether they have additional prognostic value over patient characteristics and non-contrast CT (NCCT). Methods: We included 1,374 patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke in the prospective multicenter Dutch acute stroke study. Sixty percent of the cohort was used for deriving the predictors and the remaining 40% for validating them. We calculated the predictive values of CTA and CTP predictors for poor clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3-6). Associations between CTA and CTP predictors and poor clinical outcome were assessed with odds ratios (OR). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed based on patient characteristics and NCCT predictors, and subsequently CTA and CTP predictors were added. The increase in area under the curve (AUC) value was determined to assess the additional prognostic value of CTA and CTP. Model validation was performed by assessing discrimination and calibration. Results: Poor outcome occurred in 501 patients (36.5%). Each of the evaluated CTA measures strongly predicted outcome in univariable analyses: the positive predictive value (PPV) was 59% for Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) ≤7 on CTA source images (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.3-4.8), 63% for presence of a proximal intracranial occlusion (OR 5.1; 95% CI 3.7-7.1), 66% for poor leptomeningeal collaterals (OR 4.3; 95% CI 2.8-6.6), and 58% for a >70% carotid or vertebrobasilar stenosis/occlusion (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2-4.6). The same applied to the CTP measures, as the PPVs were 65% for ASPECTS ≤7 on cerebral blood volume maps (OR 5.1; 95% CI 3.7-7.2) and 53% for ASPECTS ≤7 on mean transit time maps (OR 3.9; 95% CI 2.9-5.3). The prognostic model based on patient characteristics and NCCT measures was highly predictive for poor clinical outcome (AUC 0.84; 95% CI 0.81-0.86). Adding CTA and CTP predictors to this model did not improve the predictive value (AUC 0.85; 95% CI 0.83-0.88). In the validation cohort, the AUC values were 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.82) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.75-0.83), respectively. Calibration of the models was satisfactory. Conclusions: In patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke, admission CTA and CTP parameters are strong predictors of poor outcome and can be used to predict long-term clinical outcome. In multivariable prediction models, however, their additional prognostic value over patient characteristics and NCCT is limited in an unselected stroke population. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Clinical outcome, CT angiography, CT perfusion, Ischemic stroke, Prediction, Prognosis,
Cerebrovascular Diseases
Department of Neurology

van Seeters, T, Biessels, G.J, Kappelle, L.J, van der Schaaf, I.C, Dankbaar, J.W, Horsch, A.D, … Velthuis, B.K. (2015). The Prognostic Value of CT Angiography and CT Perfusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 40(5-6), 258–269. doi:10.1159/000441088