Background and aims: Smoking affects the course of disease in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to study the association between smoking and extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: We cross-sectionally explored the association between smoking and EIMs in IBD in three cohort studies: (1) the COIN study, designed to estimate healthcare expenditures in IBD; (2) the Groningen study, focused on cigarette smoke exposure and disease behaviour in IBD; and (3) the JOINT study, evaluating joint and back manifestations in IBD. Results: In the COIN, Groningen and JOINT cohorts, 3030, 797 and 225 patients were enrolled, of whom 16, 24 and 23.5% were current smokers, respectively. Chronic skin disorders and joint manifestations were more prevalent in smoking IBD patients than in non-smokers (COIN, 39.1 vs 29.8%, p <0.01; Groningen, 41.7 vs 30.0%, p <0.01) in both CD and UC. In the JOINT cohort, smoking was more prevalent in IBD patients with joint manifestations than in those without (30.3 vs 13.0%, p <0.01). EIMs appeared to be more prevalent in high- than in low-exposure smokers (56.0 vs 37.1%, p = 0.10). After smoking cessation, the prevalence of EIMs in IBD patients rapidly decreased towards levels found in never smokers (lag time: COIN cohort, 1-2 years; Groningen cohort, within 1 year). Conclusions: There is a robust dose-dependent association between active smoking and EIMs in both CD and UC patients. Smoking cessation was found to result in a rapid reduction of EIM prevalence to levels encountered in never smokers.

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Journal of Crohn's and Colitis
Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Severs, M, van Erp, S.J.H, van der Valk, M.E, Mangen, M.J.J, Fidder, M, van der Have, M, … Oldenburg, B. (2016). Smoking is associated with extra-intestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, 10(4), 455–461. doi:10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjv238