The transformation of recorded electrocardiographic leads (source leads) into leads that are wanted but were not recorded (target leads) has many practical applications. In general, two transformation methods are put to use, a purely statistical one and a model-based one. They are briefly reviewed and compared. Lead transformations were first used in the early nineteen-sixties to transform the component leads of one vectorcardiographic lead system into those of another. Since then, the use of lead transformations has proliferated and they are currently applied for a variety of purposes. Lead transformations can be grouped according to the source and target leads that are involved. A few applications of lead transformations from the different groups are presented, with a focus on the practicality of the application. The validity and value of the dipole approximation in relation to lead transformations is discussed.

Dipole model, Lead reconstruction, Transformation matrix, Vectorcardiography,
Journal of Electrocardiology
Department of Medical Informatics

Kors, J.A. (2015). Lead transformations and the dipole approximation: Practical applications. In Journal of Electrocardiology (Vol. 48, pp. 1040–1044). doi:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.08.015