The extensive antigenic drift displayed by seasonal influenza viruses and the risk of pandemics caused by newly emerging antigenically distinct influenza A viruses of novel subtypes has raised considerable interest in the development of so-called universal influenza vaccines. We review options for the development of universal flu vaccines and discuss progress that has been made recently.

Antibodies, Immunity, Influenza, T lymphocytes, Universal vaccine, Virus vectors,
Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Department of Virology

de Vries, R.D, Altenburg, A.F, & Rimmelzwaan, G.F. (2016). Universal influenza vaccines: A realistic option?. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 22, S120–S124. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2015.12.005