The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and axial length (AL) and myopia in 6-year-old children. A total of 2666 children aged 6 years participating in the birth-cohort study Generation R underwent a stepwise eye examination. First, presenting visual acuity (VA) and AL were performed. Second, automated cycloplegic refraction was measured if LogMAR VA > 0.1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was determined from blood using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Vitamin D related SNPs were determined with a SNP array; outdoor exposure was assessed by questionnaire. The relationships between 25(OH)D and AL or myopia were investigated using linear and logistic regression analysis. Average 25(OH)D concentration was 68.8 nmol/L (SD ± 27.5; range 4–211); average AL 22.35 mm (SD ± 0.7; range 19.2–25.3); and prevalence of myopia 2.3 % (n = 62). After adjustment for covariates, 25(OH)D concentration (per 25 nmol/L) was inversely associated with AL (β −0.043; P < 0.01), and after additional adjusting for time spent outdoors (β −0.038; P < 0.01). Associations were not different between European and non-European children (β −0.037 and β −0.039 respectively). Risk of myopia (per 25 nmol/L) was OR 0.65 (95 % CI 0.46–0.92). None of the 25(OH)D related SNPs showed an association with AL or myopia. Lower 25(OH)D concentration in serum was associated with longer AL and a higher risk of myopia in these young children. This effect appeared independent of outdoor exposure and may suggest a more direct role for 25(OH)D in myopia pathogenesis.

Axial length, Children, Myopia, Vitamin D,
European Journal of Epidemiology
Department of Internal Medicine

Tideman, J.W.L, Polling, J.R, Voortman, R.G, Jaddoe, V.W.V, Uitterlinden, A.G, Hofman, A, … Klaver, C.C.W. (2016). Low serum vitamin D is associated with axial length and risk of myopia in young children. European Journal of Epidemiology, 31(5), 491–499. doi:10.1007/s10654-016-0128-8