Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most intensively studied immune-based inflammatory diseases (IMID) of the human central nervous system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the elected animal model of MS in which immunopathogenic mechanisms are investigated and the efficacy of new therapies can be tested. However, of the many new therapies that showed promising effects in EAE models only very few were found effective in patients. One possible explanation is the immunological gap between the laboratory mouse and rat strains in which EAE is modeled and the MS patient. In this publication we discuss how EAE models in non-human primates can bridge this gap. Not only is the immune system of non-human primates more closely related to humans, but the EAE models in these species also offer unique possibilities for preclinical research.