Objectives: This study analyzes the efficacy in myocardial protection of two types of cardioplegia solutions, namely, blood and crystalloid cardioplegia, both given intermittently in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Methods: Adult patients undergoing primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1998 and January 2011 with cardiopulmonary bypass, using either blood or crystalloid cardioplegia, were identified in our database. Propensity score matching was performed to create comparable patient groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for perioperative myocardial damage. The primary endpoint of the study was the maximum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) value within 5 days postoperatively with a cut-off point of 100 U/L. Early mortality and perioperative low cardiac output syndrome in both groups were compared.
Results: The study included 7138 CABG patients: 3369 patients using crystalloid cardioplegia and 3769 using blood cardioplegia. After propensity score matching, 2585 patients per study group remained for the analysis. Wilcoxon signedrank test revealed significantly higher CK-MB levels in patients operated with the use of blood cardioplegia. Multivariate regression analysis identified blood cardioplegia as an independent risk factor for elevated CK-MB levels. However, it was associated with lower aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The type of cardioplegia had no influence on early mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or intensive care unit stay.
Conclusions: Blood cardioplegia was identified as an independent risk factor for elevated levels of CK-MB after CABG, but was associated with lower AST levels. The authors conclude that the type of cardioplegia had no significant influence on clinical outcome.

, ,
doi.org/10.1177/0267659114540023, hdl.handle.net/1765/91096
Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

De Jonge, M., Van Boxtel, A., Soliman Hamad, M. A., Mokhles, M., Bramer, S., Osnabrugge, R., … Berreklouw, E. (2015). Intermittent warm blood versus cold crystalloid cardioplegia for myocardial protection: A propensity score-matched analysis of 12-year single-center experience. Perfusion, 30(3), 243–249. doi:10.1177/0267659114540023