OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of body fatness, metabolic and inflammatory markers with retinal vessel calibers among children. DESIGN: We performed a population-based cohort study among 4145 school-age children. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.8, 8.0 years), we measured body mass index, total and abdominal fat mass, metabolic and inflammatory markers (blood levels of lipids, insulin and C-peptide and C-reactive protein) and retinal vascular calibers from retinal photographs. RESULTS: We observed that compared with normal weight children, obese children had narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (difference − 0.21 s.d. score (SDS; 95% confidence interval (CI) − 0.35, − 0.06)), but not venular caliber. Continuous analyses showed that higher body mass index and total body fat mass, but not android/gynoid fat mass ratio and pre-peritoneal fat mass, were associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (Po0.05 for body mass index and total body fat mass), but not with retinal venular caliber. Lipid and insulin levels were not associated with retinal vessel calibers. Higher C-reactive protein was associated with only wider retinal venular caliber (difference 0.10 SDS (95% CI 0.06, 0.14) per SDS increase in C-reactive protein). This latter association was not influenced by body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Higher body fatness is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber, whereas increased C-reactive protein levels are associated with wider retinal venular caliber. Increased fat mass and inflammation correlate with microvascular development from school-age onwards.

doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2015.99, hdl.handle.net/1765/91237
International Journal of Obesity
Generation R Study Group

Gishti, O, Jaddoe, V.W.V, Hofman, A, Wong, T.Y, Ikram, M.K, & Gaillard, R. (2015). Body fat distribution, metabolic and inflammatory markers and retinal microvasculature in school-age children. The Generation R Study. International Journal of Obesity, 39(10), 1482–1487. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.99