An increasing number of phlebological interventions are performed under local and tumescent anesthesia. Although the modern local anesthetic agents are generally perceived as being effective and safe drugs, the administration of these drugs may be associated with a number of adverse events. It is therefore mandatory that everyone who uses these compounds has insight into the pharmacological actions of these drugs and is capable of recognizing and adequately treating potential adverse events. The present narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on mechanisms of action of the most important local anesthetic drugs and reviews the potential adverse effects as well as their treatment.

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de Hert, S., De Baerdemaeker, L., & de Maeseneer, M. (2014). What the phlebologist should know about local anesthetics. Phlebology, 29(7), 428–441. doi:10.1177/0268355513501303