Context: Only a small number of case reports has been published on patients with PTHrP-hypersecreting metastatic gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). CopyrightObjective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical, biochemical, and radiological features, management, and treatment outcome of patients with PTHrP-hypersecreting GEP-NETs.Design: Retrospective case series.Setting: Tertiary referral hospital.Main Outcome Measures: Clinical, biochemical, and radiological features were measured, as well as response to therapy and survival.Patients: Ten patients with PTHrP-secreting GEP-NETs (nine pancreatic and one unknown primary) with a median age of 50.4 years (range, 38.3-61.1) were studied. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients were excluded.Results: The median follow-up was 57.2 months (range, 11.6-204.5 mo). Median overall survival was 86.0 months. In total, 51 different treatment interventions and combinations were applied. In seven of the 10 patients, somatostatin analog (SSA) treatment resulted in a temporary normalization of serum calcium levels with a long-term response observed in two patients (up to 35.2 mo). Peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT) with radiolabeled SSAs induced long-term responses ranging from 9.0-49.0 months in four of six patients treated with PRRT.Conclusions: Hypersecretion of PTHrP by metastatic GEP-NETs is very rare and seems to be exclusively associated with metastatic pancreatic NETs. PTHrP production has major clinical impact because poorly controllable hypercalcemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The most successful treatment options for PTHrP-producing GEP-NETs are SSAs and PRRT using radiolabeled SSAs. Isotonic saline and bisphosphonates can be considered as supportive therapies.,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Department of Clinical Chemistry

Kamp, K., Feelders, R., van Adrichem, R., de Rijke, Y., van Nederveen, F., Kwekkeboom, D., & de Herder, W. (2014). Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) secretion by gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs): Clinical features, diagnosis, management, and follow-up. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 99(9), 3060–3069. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-1315