Objective To investigate the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of ampicillin combined with metronidazole to prevent postcesarean section infections compared with a multiple day regimen in low-resource settings.Design An evaluator-blinded randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial.Setting Two rural hospitals in Tanzania.Population Of 181 enrolled eligible women with an indication for cesarean section, information on 176 was analyzed by intention-to-treat.Methods The women were randomly assigned to either the intervention group who received a single dose of ampicillin and metronidazole, or to the control group who received a multiple-day regimen of ampicillin/amoxicillin and metronidazole.Main outcome measures The primary outcome was maternal postcesarean infection. Secondary outcomes were severity of these infections, other maternal complications, and the duration of hospital stay.Results In the intervention group (n = 89), six women (6.7%) developed a wound infection compared with nine (10.3%) in the control group (n = 87) (difference 3.60; 95% CI -4.65 to 11.85) (p = 0.40).Conclusions A single dose of prophylactic ampicillin and metronidazole is equally effective as a multiple-day regimen in preventing postcesarean wound infections in low-resource settings, therefore it can be considered as a good strategy in low-resource settings. The reduced quantity of prophylactic antibiotics will reduce costs without increasing the risk of maternal infection.

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doi.org/10.1111/aogs.12517, hdl.handle.net/1765/91832
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics

Westen, E. H. M. N., Kolk, P. R., Van Velzen, C. L., Unkels, R., Mmuni, N. S., Hamisi, A. D., … van Beekhuizen, H. (2015). Single-dose compared with multiple day antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section in low-resource settings, a randomized controlled, noninferiority trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 94(1), 43–49. doi:10.1111/aogs.12517