This chapter focuses on problems - the instructional materials used in problem-based learning (PBL) to initiate and guide learning. Despite the known importance of the quality of problems in PBL, there is not much empirical research on what constitutes effective problems. This chapter presents seminal work carried out in Republic Polytechnic, Singapore and Erasmus University, The Netherlands on characteristics of effective problems and provides guidelines on designing effective problems. In addition, this chapter provides a validity-and-reliability tested instrument shown to be useful in assessing the quality of problems in PBL.

Academic achievement, Achievement-related, classroom behaviors, prior knowledge, Problem characteristics, Problem-based learning,
Erasmus University Rotterdam

Sockalingam, N, & Schmidt, H.G. (2012). Characteristics of effective problems. doi:10.1007/978-981-4021-75-3_7