Clinical characteristics of inflammation-associated depression: Monocyte gene expression is age-related in major depressive disorder
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity , Volume 44 p. 48- 56
Increased inflammatory activation might only be present in a subgroup of depressed individuals in which immune processes are especially relevant to disease development. We aimed to analyze demographic, depression, and trauma characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with regard to inflammatory monocyte gene expression. Fifty-six naturalistically treated MDD patients (32±12years) and 57 healthy controls (HC; 31±11years) were analyzed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We determined the expression of 38 inflammatory and immune activation genes including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)α and GRβ genes in purified CD14+ monocytes using quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Monocyte gene expression was age-dependent, particularly in MDD patients. Increased monocyte gene expression and decreased GRα/β ratio were only present in MDD patients aged ≥28years. Post hoc analyses of monocyte immune activation in patients <28years showed two subgroups: a subgroup with a severe course of depression (recurrent type, onset <15years) - additionally characterized by panic/arousal symptoms and childhood trauma - that had a monocyte gene expression similar to HC, and a second subgroup with a milder course of the disorder (73% first episode depression, onset ≥15years) - additionally characterized by the absence of panic symptoms - that exhibited a strongly reduced inflammatory monocyte activation compared to HC. In conclusion, monocyte immune activation was not uniformly raised in MDD patients but was increased only in patients of 28years and older.
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|Brain, Behavior, and Immunity|
Grosse, L, Carvalho, L.A, Wijkhuijs, J.M, Bellingrath, S, Ruland, T, Ambree, O, … Arolt, V. (2015). Clinical characteristics of inflammation-associated depression: Monocyte gene expression is age-related in major depressive disorder. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 44, 48–56. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2014.08.004