Does fetal smoke exposure affect childhood bone mass? The Generation R Study
Osteoporosis International: with other metabolic bone diseases , Volume 26 - Issue 4 p. 1319- 1329
Summary: We assessed the intrauterine influence of maternal smoking on childhood bone mass by comparing parental prenatal and postnatal smoking habits. We observed higher bone mass in children exposed to maternal smoking, explained by higher body weight. Maternal smoking or related lifestyle factors may affect childhood weight gain rather than skeletal growth. Introduction: Maternal smoking during pregnancy may adversely affect bone health in later life. By comparing the associations of maternal and paternal smoking and of prenatal and postnatal exposure with childhood bone measures, we aimed to explore whether the suggested association could be explained by fetal programming or reflects confounding by familial factors. Methods: In 5565 mothers, fathers and children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study, parental smoking habits during pregnancy and current household smoking habits were assessed by postal questionnaires. Total body bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the median age of 6.0 years (IQR 0.37). Results: In confounder-adjusted models, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a higher BMC of 11.6 g (95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.6, 17.5), a larger BA of 9.7 cm<sup>2</sup> (95 % CI 3.0, 16.4), a higher BMD of 6.7 g/cm<sup>2</sup> (95 % CI 2.4, 11.0) and a higher BMC of 5.4 g (95 % CI 1.3, 9.6) adjusted for BA of the child. Current weight turned out to mediate these associations. Among mothers who did not smoke, paternal smoking did not show evident associations with childhood bone measures. Also, household smoking practices during childhood were not associated with childhood bone measures. Conclusions: Our results do not support the hypothesis of fetal smoke exposure affecting childhood bone mass via intrauterine mechanisms. Maternal smoking or related lifestyle factors may affect childhood weight gain rather than skeletal growth.
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|Osteoporosis International: with other metabolic bone diseases|
|Organisation||Generation R Study Group|
Heppe, D.H.M, Medina-Gomez, M.C, Hofman, A, Rivadeneira Ramirez, F, & Jaddoe, V.W.V. (2015). Does fetal smoke exposure affect childhood bone mass? The Generation R Study. Osteoporosis International: with other metabolic bone diseases, 26(4), 1319–1329. doi:10.1007/s00198-014-3011-z