Today three-quarters of the extreme poor live in middle-income countries. There is a clear link between growth and income inequality in large middle-income countries, making poverty and associated problems increasingly a distribution issue. Livelihood studies – through a holistic perspective on how poor people organise themselves a living – have made a significant contribution in the past two decades to our understanding of processes of inclusion and exclusion and thus of the root causes of poverty and marginalisation. The greatest challenge now is translating livelihood studies into social protection policies that countervail social exclusion

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doi.org/10.1080/02255189.2016.1171748, hdl.handle.net/1765/93009
Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'études du développement

Adapted from Professor de Haan’s Valedictory lecture delivered on 18 June 2015 on the occasion of his retirement as Rector of the International Institute of Social Studies, EUR, The Hague, The Netherlands

International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS)

de Haan, L.J. (2016). Livelihoods in development. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'études du développement, 2016. doi:10.1080/02255189.2016.1171748