Liver problems are a serious health issue. The common liver problems are hepatitis, fatty liver, liver cancer and liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. Continuous, long term disease may cause a condition of the liver known as the Liver Cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis makes the liver scarred and hardened up causing portal hypertension. In such a situation the collateral vessels try to bypass the liver as blood cannot freely flow through the liver; causing internal bleeding. One of the treatments of portal hypertension is Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). In a TIPS procedure a tract in the liver is created that shortcuts two veins in the liver, reducing the portal hypertension. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is use for the treatment of liver cancer. In RFA, a needle electrode is placed through the skin into the liver tumor. High-frequency electrical currents are passed through the electrode, creating heat that destroys the cancer cells, without damaging the surrounding liver tissues.
TIPS and RFA are minimally invasive procedures, where small incisions are made to perform the surgery and are alternative to open surgery. A minimally invasive alternative has large potential in reducing complication rates, minimizing surgical trauma and reducing hospital stay. However, in these procedures, due to lack of direct eyesight, three-dimensional imaging information about the anatomy and instruments during the intervention is required. The most difficult part of these procedures is the interpretation and selection of oblique views for needle/instrument insertion and target visualization.
In our work we develop and evaluate techniques that enable the effective use of 3D ultrasound for image guided interventions. Ultrasound is low cost, mobile and unlike CT and X-rays does not use any harmful radiation in the imaging process. During these procedures, breathing shifts the region of interest and makes it difficult to constantly focus on a region of interest. We provide an approach to correct for the motion due to breathing. Additionally, we propose a method for image fusion of interventional ultrasound and preoperative imaging modalities such as CT for cases where the lesions are visible in CT but not visible in ultrasound. Incorporating CT data during intervention additionally adds greater definition and precision to the ultrasound based navigation system. Concluding, in this thesis, we presented methods and evaluated their accuracies that demonstrate the use of real-time 3D US and its fusion with CT in potentially improving image guidance in minimally invasive US guided liver interventions.

W.J. Niessen (Wiro) , T.W. van Walsum (Theo) , A. Moelker (Adriaan)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
This research is supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and partly funded by theMinistry of Economic Affairs (project number 10482). Additional financial support for the publication of this thesis was provided by Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine at the Erasmus MC and Philips.
ASCI dissertation series
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Banerjee, J. (2016, June 30). Fast 4D Ultrasound Registration for Image Guided Liver Interventions (No. 353). ASCI dissertation series. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from