The aim of this thesis was to investigate the limited spread of WNV within Europe and to assess whether this virus could actually present a greater risk to Europe in the future. As a result, the following questions were addressed:

1) Are European strains of WNV less virulent than the American strains?
2) Are birds in Europe less susceptible to infection with WNV?
3) Would a vaccine be able to protect against infection with both lineage 1 and 2 WNVs?

A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert) , B.E.E. Martina (Byron)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Department of Virology

Lim, S. (2016, September 7). West Nile virus in Europe : Host susceptibility, pathogenesis, and intervention studies. Retrieved from