The amount of information is growing exponentially with ever-new technologies emerging and is believed to be always at the limit. In contrast, huge resources are obviously available, which are underused in the IT sector, similar as e.g. in the renewable energy sector. Genome research is one of the boosting areas, which needs an extreme amount of IT resources to analyse the sequential organization of genomes, i.e. the relations between distant base pairs and regions within sequences, and its connection to the three-dimensional organization of genomes, which is still a largely unresolved problem. The underusage of resources as those accessible by grid with its fast turnover rates is very astonishing considering the barriers for further development put forward by the inability to satisfy the need for such resources. The phenomenon is a typical example of the Inverse Tragedy of the Commons, i.e. resources are underexploited in contrast to the unsustainable and destructing overexploitation in the Classic Tragedy of the Commons. An analysis of IT and the grid sector which attempts to share resources for better usage efficiency, reveals two challenges, which lead to the heart of the paradox: i) From a macro perspective all grid infrastructures involve not only mere technical solutions but also dominantly all of the autopoietic social sub-systems ranging from religion to policy. ii) On the micro level the individual players and their psychology and risk behaviour are of major importance for acting within the macro autopoietic framework. Consequently, the challenges of grid implementation are similar to those of other pressing global issues as e.g. climate protection. This is well described by extending the Human Ecology triangle to a rectangle: invironment-individual-society-environment. By applying this extension of this classical field of interdisciplinary basic and applied research to the grid sector, i.e. by further extension to an e-Human Grid Ecology rational, the Grid Inverse Tragedy of the Commons can be understood and approached regarding the internalization challenge into e-Society and e-Life, from which then guidelines for the day-to-day management can be derived. This is of general importance for many complex fields and thus with similar paradoxes and challenges. By using grid Long-range power-law correlations were found using correlation analysis on almost the entire observable scale of 132 completely sequenced chromosomes of 0.5x106 to 3.0x107 bp from Archaea, Bacteria, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. The local correlation coefficients show a species specific multi-scaling behaviour: close to random correlations on the scale of a few base pairs, a first maximum from 40 to 3400 bp (for Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster divided in two submaxima), and often a region of one or more second maxima from 105 to 3x105 bp. Within this multi-scaling behaviour, an additional fine-structure is present and attributable to codon usage in all except the human sequences, where it is related to nucleosomal binding. Computer-generated random sequences assuming a block organization of genomes, the codon usage, and nucleosomal binding explain these results. Mutation by sequence reshuffling destroyed all correlations. Thus, the stability of correlations seems evolutionarily tightly controlled and connected to the spatial genome organization. In summary, genomes show a complex sequential organization related closely to their three-dimensional organization. Consequently, grids can be established by solving the Grid Inverse Tragedy of the Commons using a e-Human Grid Ecology rational and indeed be used as e.g. in genome research for DNA sequence pattern analysis very successfully to determine for decades unresolved questions which demand very heavy IT support. Thus, indeed the solutions for the demand requirements in the research commons of e-Societies can be tackled successfully by such a systemic approach.

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8th International Desktop Grid Foundation (IDGF) Workshop, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Hannover, Germany, 17th August, 2011.
Biophysical Genomics, Department Cell Biology & Genetics

Knoch, T., Abuseiris, A., Lesnussa, M., Kepper, N., de Graaf, R., & Grosveld, F. (2011, August 17). DNA Sequence Patterns
A Successful Example of Grid Computing in Genome Research
Building Virtual Super-Computers
for the
Research Commons of e-Societies. Presented at the 8th International Desktop Grid Foundation (IDGF) Workshop, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Hannover, Germany, 17th August, 2011. Retrieved from