Combined transvaginal and transabdominal Doppler ultrasound allows recording of fetal intra‐ and extracardiac flow velocity waveforms in late first‐ and early second‐ trimester pregnancies. At 10–12 weeks, end‐diastolic flow velocities were always absent in the fetal descending aorta and umbilical artery, but were present in over half of the intracerebral artery waveforms. The pulsatility index in the three vessels decreased significantly with advancing gestational age, suggesting a reduction in fetal and umbilical placental vascular resistance. Peak velocities during atria1 contraction (A‐wave) were nearly twice as high as those during early diastolic filling (E‐wave), reflecting low ventricular compliance. Continuous forward flow in the umbilical vein was associated with a pulsatile systolic and diastolic forward flow in the ductus venosus. Retrograde flow was only present in the inferior vena cava. Copyright

Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics

Huisman, T., Stewart, P., & Wladimiroff, J. (1992). Doppler assessment of the normal early fetal circulation. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (Vol. 2, pp. 300–305). doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.1992.02040300.x