Antibody-mediated rejection has emerged as one of the major issues limiting the success of organ transplantation. It exerts a highly negative impact on graft function and outcome, and effective treatment is lacking. The triggers for antibody development, and the mechanisms leading to graft dysfunction and failure, are incompletely understood. The production of antibodies is dependent on instructions from various immunocytes including CD4 T-helper cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-21 and interact with antigen-specific B-cells via costimulatory molecules. In this article, we discuss the role of IL-21 in the activation and differentiation of B-cells and consider the mechanisms of IL-21 and B-cell interaction. An improved understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in antibody-mediated complications after organ transplantation could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies, which control humoral alloreactivity, potentially preventing and treating graft-threatening antibody-mediated rejection.

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Keywords B-cell, IL-21, IL-21 receptor, JAK/STAT, Organ transplantation, Rejection
Sponsor This work was supported by a fund from the Science and Technology Department of Sichuan Province, Grant No. 2016JY0035.
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Journal Frontiers in Immunology
Wu, Y, van Besouw, N.M, Shi, Y.Y, Hoogduijn, M.J, Wang, L.L, & Baan, C.C. (2016). The biological effects of IL-21 signaling on B-cell-mediated responses in organ transplantation. Frontiers in Immunology (Vol. 7). doi:10.3389/fimmu.2016.00319